Agreement Between Two States

Most early intergovernmental pacts resolved border conflicts, but since the early 20th century, compacts have increasingly been used as a tool for government cooperation. [2] In some cases, an agreement will create a new multi-governmental authority to manage or improve some shared resources, such as a seaport or public transport infrastructure. The National Center for Interstate Compacts of the Council of State Governments has created an online database containing intergovernmental compacts available on The database allows searches by compact name, status, object category, acceptance year and keyword. Information on each pact includes the situation, the contracting parties, information on where the pact appears in the respective statutes of those states and, in many cases, a PDF version of the pact and/or a link to the Commission`s website or another intergovernmental agency created by the pact. The intergovernmental pacts in the database cover different countries and address a wide range of issues such as nature and environmental protection, education, insurance, taxation and other issues. However, with the proliferation of administrative functions at the state level, intergovernmental pacts are extended to the rules and procedures for managing activities between them. [45] The Council of State Governments[46] recommends the use of an intergovernmental authority to “ensure accountability, training, compliance, enforcement, regulation, information collection and exchange, as well as all staff, in order to make the [compact] a success.” [47] Since pacts are written in the form of contracts, states that negotiate pacts involving the creation of an intergovernmental agency are free to determine the rules applicable to the management of that agency. In addition to treaties, there are other less formal international agreements.

These include efforts such as the Proliferation Security Initiative (PSI) and the G7 Global Partnership Against the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Although the PSI has a “declaration of prohibition principles” and the G7 Global Partnership includes several statements by G7 heads of state and government, it also does not have a legally binding document that sets specific obligations and is signed or ratified by member states. [33] No. Bancorp, Inc. of The Fed Governors. Reserve Sys., 472 U.S. 159, 176 (1985). An example of such a pact would be a problem that covers a problem that affects all states, but only allows certain states to participate. Buenger et al., supra note 2, at 69. Compacts` approaches to their management are different.

Some pacts, especially those that set specific conditions for their purpose, may simply designate the agencies of the states that are parties to the Covenant and are responsible for complying with those conditions. [60] Where meaningful coordination and communication between states is required, a pact may designate one or more persons per state who are responsible for monitoring the state`s performance under the Covenant. [61] Other compacts may assign important regulatory powers and expertise to intergovernmental organizations to achieve compact objectives and manage compliance. [62] These intergovernmental organizations can also promote cooperation and serve as essential sources of information on the theme of the Pact. [63] Intergovernmental pacts differ from “uniform acts,” which are standard statutes established by bodies of non-governmental legal experts, which must be adopted independently by state legislators, rather than an agreement between several states.

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