According to health researcher Karen E. Koch, the first initiative of “collaborative management of drug therapy” can be attributed to William A. Zellmers in 1995 in the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy.  Zellmer argues for the use of the term “collaborative management of drug therapy” instead of “prescription,” and argues that this will make laws that expand the authority of pharmacists tastier for legislators (and physician representatives). The most important is the debate on why pharmacists are interested in extending this authority: improving patient care through interdisciplinary cooperation.  The modern concept of collaborative practice has been partly derived from the controversial notion of dependent prescribing authority.  Pharmacists who participate in CPAs may participate in clinical services outside the traditional scope for pharmacists. In particular, pharmacists are not required to participate in CPAs to provide many pharmacy practice services that are already within their traditional practice area, such as .B. the implementation of drug therapy management, the provision of disease prevention services (for example. Vaccination), participation in public health screenings (e.g.
B screening patients for depressive disorders such as. B severe depressive disorders, through the administration of PHQ-2), the provision of specific information related to the disease (for example. B as a certified patient). , and advise patients on information about their medications.  Advanced pharmacy services under a CPA are described as collaborative management of drug therapy (CDTM). [a] While traditional practice for pharmacists provides that the legal authority recognizes drug-related problems (DOP) and proposes solutions for PDs to prescription persons (e.g. B physicians), pharmacists who offer CDTMs solve PDs directly when they recognize them. This may include prescribing drugs to select and initiate drugs to treat a patient`s diagnosed illnesses (as described in the CPA), stopping the use of prescription or over-the-counter drugs, and modifying a patient`s drug treatment (for example. B change in strength, frequency, frequency of administration or duration of therapy), evaluation of a patient`s response to drug treatment (including drug treatment). , such as.B.
a basic metabolic panel) and the continuation of drug therapy (with a new prescription).  In 2015, the American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) published an updated white paper on the management of collaborative drug therapy. CacP regularly publishes updates on this topic, with previous publications in 2003 and 1997. The document describes the recent history of CPAs, legislative advances and discussed payment models for collaborative drug therapy management activities.  In 2010, the American Medical Association (AMA) published a series of reports entitled “AMA Scope of Practice Data Series.”  One report focused on the pharmacy profession, which criticized the formation of CPAs as an attempt by pharmacists to intervene with the physician. In response to the report, a collaboration of seven national pharmacists` associations prepared a response to the WADA Pharmacists Report.  The response called on WADA to correct its report and publish the revised report with Errata.  In 2011, the WADA Chamber of Deputies adopted a more flexible tone of the APhA in response to contributions from aPhA and other pharmacy professional associations and finally passed the following resolution, which focused attention on the rejection of independent (rather than collaborative or dependent) practical agreements: the American Association of Medical Colleges predicts that our nation will be short of 90,000 physicians by 2025. , including 31,000 primary service providers.1 The impact of this shortage is expected to be greatest for underserved populations.